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NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Physics Chapter 3 download pdf
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NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Physics Chapter 3
S.N.
MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE (Exercise Question)
1
In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be consideredapproximately a point object:(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table.
2
The position-time (x-t) graphs for two children A and B returning from their schoolO to their homes P and Q respectively are shown in Fig. 3.19. Choose the correctentries in the brackets below ;(a) (A/B) lives closer to the school than (B/A)(b) (A/B) starts from the school earlier than (B/A)(c) (A/B) walks faster than (B/A)(d) A and B reach home at the (same/different) time(e) (A/B) overtakes (B/A) on the road (once/twice).
3
A woman starts from her home at 9.00 am, walks with a speed of 5 km h–1 on astraight road up to her office 2.5 km away, stays at the office up to 5.00 pm, andreturns home by an auto with a speed of 25 km h–1. Choose suitable scales andplot the x-t graph of her motion.
4
A drunkard walking in a narrow lane takes 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward,followed again by 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward, and so on. Each step is 1m long and requires 1 s. Plot the x-t graph of his motion. Determine graphicallyand otherwise how long the drunkard takes to fall in a pit 13 m away from thestart.
5
A jet airplane travelling at the speed of 500 km h–1 ejects its products of combustionat the speed of 1500 km h–1 relative to the jet plane. What is the speed of thelatter with respect to an observer on the ground ?
6
A car moving along a straight highway with speed of 126 km h–1 is brought to astop within a distance of 200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumeduniform), and how long does it take for the car to stop ?
7
Two trains A and B of length 400 m each are moving on two parallel tracks with auniform speed of 72 km h–1 in the same direction, with A ahead of B. The driver ofB decides to overtake A and accelerates by 1 m s–2. If after 50 s, the guard of B justbrushes past the driver of A, what was the original distance between them ?
8
On a two-lane road, car A is travelling with a speed of 36 km h–1. Two cars B andC approach car A in opposite directions with a speed of 54 km h–1 each. At acertain instant, when the distance AB is equal to AC, both being 1 km, B decidesto overtake A before C does. What minimum acceleration of car B is required toavoid an accident ?
9
Two towns A and B are connected by a regular bus service with a bus leaving ineither direction every T minutes. A man cycling with a speed of 20 km h–1 in thedirection A to B notices that a bus goes past him every 18 min in the direction ofhis motion, and every 6 min in the opposite direction. What is the period T of thebus service and with what speed (assumed constant) do the buses ply on theroad?
10
A player throws a ball upwards with an initial speed of 29.4 m s–1.(a) What is the direction of acceleration during the upward motion of the ball ?(b) What are the velocity and acceleration of the ball at the highest point of itsmotion ?(c) Choose the x = 0 m and t = 0 s to be the location and time of the ball at itshighest point, vertically downward direction to be the positive direction ofx-axis, and give the signs of position, velocity and acceleration of the ballduring its upward, and downward motion.(d) To what height does the ball rise and after how long does the ball return to theplayer’s hands ? (Take g = 9.8 m s–2 and neglect air resistance)
11
Read each statement below carefully and state with reasons and examples, if it istrue or false ;A particle in one-dimensional motion(a) with zero speed at an instant may have non-zero acceleration at that instant(b) with zero speed may have non-zero velocity,(c) with constant speed must have zero acceleration,(d) with positive value of acceleration must be speeding up.
12
A ball is dropped from a height of 90 m on a floor. At each collision with the floor,the ball loses one tenth of its speed. Plot the speed-time graph of its motionbetween t = 0 to 12 s.
13
Explain clearly, with examples, the distinction between :(a) magnitude of displacement (sometimes called distance) over an interval of time,and the total length of path covered by a particle over the same interval;(b) magnitude of average velocity over an interval of time, and the average speedover the same interval. [Average speed of a particle over an interval of time isdefined as the total path length divided by the time interval]. Show in both (a)and (b) that the second quantity is either greater than or equal to the first.When is the equality sign true ? [For simplicity, consider one-dimensionalmotion only].
14
A man walks on a straight road from his home to a market 2.5 km away with aspeed of 5 km h–1. Finding the market closed, he instantly turns and walks backhome with a speed of 7.5 km h–1. What is the(a) magnitude of average velocity, and(b) average speed of the man over the interval of time (i) 0 to 30 min, (ii) 0 to50 min, (iii) 0 to 40 min ? [Note: You will appreciate from this exercise why itis better to define average speed as total path length divided by time, and notas magnitude of average velocity. You would not like to tell the tired man onhis return home that his average speed was zero !]
15
In Exercises 3.13 and 3.14, we have carefully distinguished between average speedand magnitude of average velocity. No such distinction is necessary when weconsider instantaneous speed and magnitude of velocity. The instantaneous speedis always equal to the magnitude of instantaneous velocity. Why ?
16
Look at the graphs (a) to (d) (Fig. 3.20) carefully and state, with reasons, which ofthese cannot possibly represent one-dimensional motion of a particle.
17
Figure 3.21 shows the x-t plot of one-dimensionalmotion of a particle. Is it correct to say from thegraph that the particle moves in a straight line fort < 0 and on a parabolic path for t >0 ? If not, suggesta suitable physical context for this graph.
18
A police van moving on a highway with a speed of30 km h–1 fires a bullet at a thief’s car speeding awayin the same direction with a speed of 192 km h–1. Ifthe muzzle speed of the bullet is 150 m s–1, withwhat speed does the bullet hit the thief’s car ? (Note:Obtain that speed which is relevant for damagingthe thief’s car).
19
Suggest a suitable physical situation for each of thefollowing graphs (Fig 3.22):
20
Figure 3.23 gives the x-t plot of a particle executing one-dimensional simpleharmonic motion. (You will learn about this motion in more detail in Chapter14).Give the signs of position, velocity and acceleration variables of the particle att = 0.3 s, 1.2 s, – 1.2 s.
21
Figure 3.24 gives the x-t plot of aparticle in one-dimensional motion.Three different equal intervals of timeare shown. In which interval is theaverage speed greatest, and in whichis it the least ? Give the sign of averagevelocity for each interval.
22
Figure 3.25 gives a speed-time graph ofa particle in motion along a constantdirection. Three equal intervals of timeare shown. In which interval is theaverage acceleration greatest inmagnitude ? In which interval is theaverage speed greatest ? Choosing thepositive direction as the constantdirection of motion, give the signs of vand a in the three intervals. What arethe accelerations at the points A, B, Cand D ?
23
A three-wheeler starts from rest, accelerates uniformly with 1 m s–2 on a straightroad for 10 s, and then moves with uniform velocity. Plot the distance covered bythe vehicle during the nth second (n = 1,2,3….) versus n. What do you expect thisplot to be during accelerated motion : a straight line or a parabola ?
24
A boy standing on a stationary lift (open from above) throws a ball upwards withthe maximum initial speed he can, equal to 49 m s–1. How much time does the balltake to return to his hands? If the lift starts moving up with a uniform speed of5 m s-1 and the boy again throws the ball up with the maximum speed he can, howlong does the ball take to return to his hands ?
25
On a long horizontally moving belt (Fig. 3.26), a child runs to and fro with a speed9 km h–1 (with respect to the belt) between his father and mother located 50 m aparton the moving belt. The belt moves with a speed of 4 km h–1. For an observer on astationary platform outside, what is the(a) speed of the child running in the direction of motion of the belt ?.(b) speed of the child running opposite to the direction of motion of the belt ?(c) time taken by the child in (a) and (b) ?Which of the answers alter if motion is viewed by one of the parents ?
26
Two stones are thrown up simultaneously from the edge of a cliff 200 m high withinitial speeds of 15 m s–1 and 30 m s–1. Verify that the graph shown in Fig. 3.27correctly represents the time variation of the relative position of the second stonewith respect to the first. Neglect air resistance and assume that the stones do notrebound after hitting the ground. Take g = 10 m s–2. Give the equations for thelinear and curved parts of the plot.
27
The speed-time graph of a particle moving along a fixed direction is shown inFig. 3.28. Obtain the distance traversed by the particle between (a) t = 0 s to 10 s,(b) t = 2 s to 6 s.
28
The velocity-time graph of a particle in one-dimensional motion is shown inFig. 3.29 :Fig. 3.29Which of the following formulae are correct for describing the motion of the particleover the time-interval t1to t2:
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